X1

X1 consists of educational physics articles in Persian. To see the (English) abstract of each article, no particular software is needed. But the full texts are in the pdf format. To view them, Adobe (Acrobat) reader 5 or later is needed. Adobe reader can be obtained from Adobe reader download.

Using, printing, and publishing these texts for non-commercial purposes is free, provided they are not altered in any sense (including text, style, and orthography). For any other use, author's permission is needed.



X1 (2017)                                        back to mamwad
X1-123 (2017/04/07) abs      full text
                    The central force and special relativity

X1-122 (2017/02/25) abs      full text
                    The field-lines of a charge which moves on a straight line

X1-121 (2017/01/27) abs      full text
                    The paradox of the drift velocity in matter


X1 (2016)                                        back to mamwad
X1-120 (2016/11/27) abs      full text
                    The Galileo symmetry

X1-119 (2016/10/29) abs      full text
                    The energy-momentum tensor III

X1-118 (2016/08/27) abs      full text
                    The electric force on concentrated sources

X1-117 (2016/07/28) abs      full text
                    Spinors and the curved space

X1-116 (2016/05/26) abs      full text
                    The oblateness of the earth, the latitude, and the arc length

X1-115 (2016/04/29) abs      full text
                    The maximally-symmetric spaces

X1-114 (2016/02/25) abs      full text
                    The Frenet frame

X1-113 (2016/01/28) abs      full text
                    The curvature, the volume, the area


X1 (2015)                                        back to mamwad
X1-112 (2015/11/29) abs      full text
                    Two port circuits

X1-111 (2015/10/30) abs      full text
                    Approximate action for the interaction of charged particles

X1-110 (2015/08/28) abs      full text
                    Fitting, estimation, uncertainty II

X1-109 (2015/07/30) abs      full text
                    Fitting, estimation, uncertainty I

X1-108 (2015/05/29) abs      full text
                    A finite conducting rod

X1-107 (2015/04/30) abs      full text
                    Angle-preserving and area-preserving planar maps of the sphere

X1-106 (2015/02/20) abs      full text
                    The stationary shape of the surface of a moving fluid

X1-105 (2015/01/24) abs      full text
                    The Green's function of the Laplacian for the space outside a disc


X1 (2014)                                        back to mamwad
X1-104 (2014/11/28) abs      full text
                    Equilibrium of ordinary stars

X1-103 (2014/10/30) abs      full text
                    Scattering in one dimension II

X1-102 (2014/08/22) abs      full text
                    Degenerate perturbation

X1-101 (2014/07/25) abs      full text
                    Estimating the mass and radius of degenerate stars

X1-100 (2014/05/30) abs      full text
                    The geometry of Emission and absorbtion of radiation

X1-099 (2014/04/25) abs      full text
                    Measurement, estimation, uncertainty

X1-098 (2014/02/22) abs      full text
                    A falling liquid

X1-097 (2014/01/31) abs      full text
                    Dipole density


X1 (2013)                                        back to mamwad
X1-096 (2013/11/29) abs      full text
                    Stability of the atmosphere, and the height-dependence of the temperature

X1-095 (2013/10/30) abs      full text
                    Mappings defined on SU(2) and SO(3)

X1-094 (2013/08/31) abs      full text
                    The manifolds of the groups SU(2) and SO(3)

X1-093 (2013/07/28) abs      full text
                    The image of a charge distribution

X1-092 (2013/05/29) abs      full text
                    Time-dependent perturbation, eigenvalue shift, and survival

X1-091 (2013/04/25) abs      full text
                    Relativistic particle in external fields

X1-090 (2013/02/26) abs      full text
                    Motion of a spherically-symmetric ball on a plane

X1-089 (2013/01/28) abs      full text
                    Measurement of the probability


X1 (2012)                                        back to mamwad
X1-088 (2012/11/29) abs      full text
                    Symmetries of the nonrelativistic spacetime, 
                    as a contraction of symmetries of the relativistic spacetime

X1-087 (2012/10/29) abs      full text
                    A cable which is hanging upwards from the earth

X1-086 (2012/08/30) abs      full text
                    The geometry and dynamics of surfaces embedded in space

X1-085 (2012/07/31) abs      full text
                    Axis symmetry in arbitrary dimesnion

X1-084 (2012/05/26) abs      full text
                    Boosted circuits

X1-083 (2012/04/27) abs      full text
                    The polarization and the phase of light

X1-082 (2012/02/28) abs      full text
                    The magnetic field of a thin solenoid

X1-081 (2012/01/19) abs      full text
                    Transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic fields


X1 (2011)                                        back to mamwad
X1-080 (2011/11/28) abs      full text
                    Strain, Stress, and moduli

X1-079 (2011/10/28) abs      full text
                    Distribution of charge between two conducting spheres tangent to each other

X1-078 (2011/08/25) abs      full text
                    Gaussian optics and the transfer matrix

X1-077 (2011/07/28) abs      full text
                    Analemma

X1-076 (2011/05/25) abs      full text
                    Adiabatic invariants, and the pendulum's energy

X1-075 (2011/04/29) abs      full text
                    The perihelion of the Earth in the orbit of the Sun

X1-074 (2011/02/23) abs      full text
                    The potential in some problems with nonlocalized sources

X1-073 (2011/01/25) abs      full text
                    Time as a dynamical variable


X1 (2010)                                        back to mamwad
X1-072 (2010/11/26) abs      full text
                    Eigenexponents of passive circuits

X1-071 (2010/10/21) abs      full text
                    Relativistic particle in a scalar field

X1-070 (2010/08/20) abs      full text
                    Wave propagation in discrete space

X1-069 (2010/07/28) abs      full text
                    The generator of translation in the box

X1-068 (2010/05/27) abs      full text
                    The conformal transformation and the Poisson's problem in two dimensions

X1-067 (2010/04/24) abs      full text
                    Simultaneous observers

X1-066 (2010/02/26) abs      full text
                    Two charged conductiong spheres

X1-065 (2010/01/28) abs      full text
                    The scalar potential of a tube with an azimuthal current


X1 (2009)                                        back to mamwad
X1-064 (2009/11/28) abs      full text
                    Poincaré mappings and the priciples of special relativity   

X1-063 (2009/10/29) abs      full text
                    The internal energy of a relativistic ideal gas   

X1-062 (2009/08/19) abs      full text
                    Diagrammatics I

X1-061 (2009/07/30) abs      full text
                    The de Hass-van Alphen effect in two dimensions

X1-060 (2009/05/22) abs      full text
                    Virial and the van der Waals equation

X1-059 (2009/04/24) abs      full text
                    Parallel transport in two dimensions

X1-058 (2009/02/26) abs      full text
                    The statistical mechanics of the rotator

X1-057 (2009/01/08) abs      full text
                    Thermodynamics of single particle interactions


X1 (2008)                                        back to mamwad
X1-056 (2008/11/28) abs      full text
                    The semiclassical approximation

X1-055 (2008/10/25) abs      full text
                    The dispersion relation of vector waves

X1-054 (2008/08/27) abs      full text
                    Planets' lights

X1-053 (2008/07/25) abs      full text
                    Rolling friction

X1-052 (2008/05/29) abs      full text
                    Surface waves of liquids

X1-051 (2008/04/29) abs      full text
                    Thomas precession

X1-050 (2008/02/29) abs      full text
                    Relativity and constant acceleration

X1-049 (2008/01/31) abs      full text
                    Relativity and systems with variable mass


X1 (2007)                                        back to mamwad
X1-048 (2007/11/23) abs      full text
                    Wave propagation in moving media

X1-047 (2007/09/13) abs      full text
                    The action and discrete time

X1-046 (2007/07/31) abs      full text
                    Distillation and the composition of liquid and vapor

X1-045 (2007/06/29) abs      full text
                    The triple point, and the vapour pressure

X1-044 (2007/04/19) abs      full text
                    The Sagnac effect

X1-043 (2007/02/28) abs      full text
                    The holomorphic picture of the harmonic oscillator

X1-042 (2007/01/29) abs      full text
                    Evolution of continuous random variables


X1 (2006)                                        back to mamwad
X1-041 (2006/11/17) abs      full text
                    A long cylinder floating on the surface of a liquid

X1-040 (2006/09/29) abs      full text
                    The rotational states and the phase space

X1-039 (2006/07/31) abs      full text
                    Towards a specific point on the sphere

X1-038 (2006/06/29) abs      full text
                    Rigid body and special relativity

X1-037 (2006/04/27) abs      full text
                    Space symmetries of the magnetic field

X1-036 (2006/02/12) abs      full text
                    The time interval between two successive Moonsets

X1-035 (2006/01/08) abs      full text
                    Uniformly-charged solid ellipsoid


X1 (2005)                                        back to mamwad
X1-034 (2005/11/08) abs      full text
                    The spinor representations of so(4)

X1-033 (2005/09/03) abs      full text
                    Escape of a gas through a small opening

X1-032 (2005/07/30) abs      full text
                    Motion of a charge in a uniform and constant electromagnetic field

X1-031 (2005/06/30) abs      full text
                    The sound barrier

X1-030 (2005/04/12) abs      full text
                    The density matrix

X1-029 (2005/02/20) abs      full text
                    The energy-momentum tensor II

X1-028 (2005/01/07) abs      full text
                    The energy-momentum tensor I                    


X1 (2004)                                        back to mamwad
X1-027 (2004/10/23) abs      full text
                    The area distribution of a submanifold

X1-026 (2004/09/13) abs      full text
                    Why do stars twinkle?

X1-025 (2004/07/23) abs      full text
                    Newton's laws

X1-024 (2004/06/12) abs      full text
                    Newtonian cosmology                    

X1-023 (2004/04/01) abs      full text
                    Scattering in one dimension I                   

X1-022 (2004/02/21) abs      full text
                    Hydrogen-like ions, and spherical spinors                    

X1-021 (2004/01/22) abs      full text
                    The electromagnetic field equations in matter                    


X1 (2003)                                        back to mamwad
X1-020 (2003/11/20) abs      full text
                    The pressure-difference due to the surface tension, 
                    and the differential geometry of surfaces                    

X1-019 (2003/09/29) abs      full text
                    The motion of a charged particle 
                    in an almost-homogeneous magnetic field

X1-018 (2003/08/28) abs      full text
                    The effect of the Earth's atmosphere 
                    on the apparent size and shape of objects

X1-017 (2003/06/08) abs      full text
                    Symmetry and the small oscillations

X1-016 (2003/05/12) abs      full text
                    Symmetry and the Lagrangian formulation II

X1-015 (2003/03/21) abs      full text
                    Symmetry and the Lagrangian formulation I

X1-014 (2003/02/12) abs      full text
                    A bubble between two circular boundaries:
                    a simple phase transition


X1 (2002)                                        back to mamwad
X1-013 (2002/12/08) abs      full text
                    rigid body rotation, 
                    and the phase space formulation

X1-012 (2002/10/04) abs      full text
                    Magnetic multipoles in magnetostatics

X1-011 (2002/09/01) abs      full text
                    Birth of the modern quantum mechanics, 
                    in today's language

X1-010 (2002/07/14) abs      full text
                    Elliptic coordinates 
                    in some electromagnetics problems

X1-009 (2002/05/09) abs      full text
                    Oscillations of a body attached to 
                    a massive spring

X1-008 (2002/03/21) abs      full text
                    How oblate is the Earth?

X1-007 (2002/01/30) abs      full text
                    Transverse oscillations of a column of liquid


X1 (2001)                                        back to mamwad
X1-006 (2001/12/21) abs      full text
                    Stochastic processes

X1-005 (2001/10/03) abs      full text
                    The electrostatic potential,
                    the potential-coefficients matrix,
                    and the capacity matrix

X1-004 (2001/08/01) abs      full text
                    Sundial

X1-003 (2001/06/28) abs      full text
                    Green's functions of the Laplace and
                    diffusion equation on the sphere
                    and plane: contraction

X1-002 (2001/04/01) abs      full text
                    Green's functions of the wave equation
                    in different dimensions

X1-001 (2001/02/21) abs      full text
                    Symmetries in quantum mechanics,
                    and the degeneracy of the Hamiltonian